PUBLICATIONS  print this page 

Publications serve as the concrete art form for the scientist. It is his modus operandi. Authorship is akin to success and achievement. It cannot and should not deteriorate into a bargaining tool or commodity. Dardik
Ahmad, A., Viljoen, A.M., Chenai, H.Y. 2014. The impact of plant volatiles on bacterial quorum sensing. Letters in Applied Microbiology 60: 8-19.


Badoni Semwal, R., Semwal, D.K., Combrinck, S., Viljoen, A. 2015. Butein: From ancient traditional remedy to modern nutraceutical. Phytochemistry Letters [in press].


Maree, J.E., Khondkar, P., Kwapong, A., Oyedemi, B.M., Aljarba, T.M., Stapleton, P., Viljoen, A.M., Gibbon, S. 2014. Bioactive acetophenones from Plectranthus venteri. Phytochemistry Letters 10: cxli-cxliv.


Bassey, K., Viljoen, A., Combrinck, S., Choi, Y.H. 2014. New phytochemicals from the corms of medicinally important South African Hypoxis species. Phytochemistry Letters 10: lxix-lxxv.


Kasote, D., Ahmad, A., Chen, W., Combrinck, S., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. HPTLC-MS as an efficient hyphenated technique for the rapid identification of antimicrobial compounds from propolis. Phytochemistry Letters [in press]


Sandasi, M., Vermaak, I., Chen, W., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Hyperspectral imaging and chemometric modeling of Echinacea - a novel approach in the quality control for herbal medicines. Molecules 19: 13104-13121.


Vermaak, I., Enslin, G., Idowu, T., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Xysmalobium undulatum (Uzara) – review of an antidiarrhoeal traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156: 135–146.


Sandasi, M., Vermaak, I., Chen, W., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Skullcap and germander: Preventing potential toxicity through the application of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate image analysis as a novel quality control method. Planta Medica 80: 1329-1339.


Viljoen, A.M., Zhou, J., Sandasi, M., Chen, Wei, Khan, I. 2014. Phytochemical distinction between Pelargonium sidoides (“Umckaloabo”) and P. reniforme through H-NMR and UHPLC-MS metabolomic profiling. Metabolomics August 1-9.


Reza Adhami, H., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Preparative isolation of bio-markers from the leaf exudate of Aloe ferox (“aloe bitters”) by high performance counter-current chromatography. Phytochemistry Letters [in press]


Semwal, D., Semwal, R., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. From arrow poison to herbal medicine - The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological significance of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155: 1011-1028.


Mncwangi, N.P., Viljoen, A.M., Zhao, J., Vermaak, I., Chen, W., Khan, I. 2014. What the devil is in your phytomedicine? Exploring species substitution in Harpagophytum through chemometric modeling of 1H-NMR and UHPLC-MS datasets. Phytochemistry 106: 104-115.


Debabrata, A., Enslin, G., Chen, W., Sandasi, M., Mavimbela, T., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. A chemometric approach to the quality control of Sutherlandia (Cancer Bush). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 56: 221–230.


Semwal, R., Semwal, D., Combrinck, S., Cartwright-Jones, C., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Lawsonia inermis L. (henna): Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155: 80–103.


Tankeu, S., Vermaak, I., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometric modelling: an economical and robust quality control method for lavender oil. Industrial Crops and Products 59: 234–240.


Mavimbela, T., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Differentiating between Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata – A quality control perspective. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 1: e8–e14.


Kasote, D., Suleman, T., Chen, W., Sandasi, M., Viljoen, A., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2014. Chemical profiling and chemometric analysis of South African propolis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 55: 156–163.


Ahmad, A., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Unravelling the complex antimicrobial interactions of essential oils – the case of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme). Molecules 19: 2896-2910.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Docrat, Y., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial interactions of understudied tea tree species. South African Journal of Botany 92: 7–14.


Tankeu, S., Vermaak, I., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Vibrational spectroscopy as a rapid quality control method for Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil). Phytochemical Analysis 25: 81–88.


Mncwangi, N.P., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2014. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging – a novel approach in the qualitative assessment of Harpagophytum procumbens and H. zeyheri (Devil’s Claw). Phytochemistry Letters 7: 143–149


Maree, J., Kamatou, G.P.P., Gibbons, S., Viljoen, A.M., van Vuuren, S.F. 2014. The application of GC-MS combined with chemometrics for the identification of antimicrobial compounds from selected commercial essential oils. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 130: 172–181.


Tankeu, S., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M., Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P. 2013. Essential oil variation of Tagetes minuta in South Africa – a chemometric approach. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 51: 320-327.


Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Combrinck, S., Viljoen, A.M. 2013. A chemotaxonomic assessment of four indigenous South African Lippia species using GC–MS and vibrational spectroscopy of the essential oils. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 51: 142–152.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M., Lawrence, B. 2013. Menthol: A simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties. Phytochemistry 96: 15-25.


Chen, W., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2013. Camphor – A fumigant during the Black Death and a coveted fragrant wood in ancient Egypt and Babylon – a review. Molecules 18: 5434-5454.


de Rapper, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2013. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil in combination with other aroma-therapeutic oils. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/852049


Mabona, U., Viljoen, A.M., Shikanga, E., Marston, A., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance: From an ethnopharmcological screening approach, to combination studies and the isolation of a bioactive compound. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 148: 45-55.


Shikanga, E., Viljoen, A.M., Vermaak, I., Combrinck, S. 2013. A novel approach in herbal quality control using hyperspectral imaging: discriminating between Sceletium tortuosum and Sceletium crassicaule. Phytochemical Analysis 24: 550–555.


Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M., Wiklund-Lindström, S. 2013. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines – The case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Anlysis 75: 207-213.


Beneke, C., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2013. Modulation of drug efflux by Aloe materials: an in vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue. Pharmacognosy Magazine 9: S44-S48.


Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P.,Viljoen, A.M. 2012. An untargeted metabolomic approach in the chemotaxonomic assessment of two Salvia species as a potential source of α-bisabolol. Phytochemistry 84: 94-101.


Mncwangi, N.P., Chen,W., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M., Gericke, N. 2012. Devil’s Claw – a review of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activity of Harpagophytum procumbens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 143(3):755-771 .


Maree, J.E., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Phytochemical distinction between Pelargonium sidoides and P. reniforme – A quality control perspective . South African Journal of Botany 82: 83-91.


Mncwangi, N.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Quantitative variation of amino acids in Sutherlandia frutescens (Cancer bush) – towards setting parameters for quality control. South African Journal of Botany 82: 46-52.


Shikanga, E., Viljoen, A.M., Combrinck, S., Marston, A., Gericke, N. 2012. The chemotypic variation of Sceletium tortuosum alkaloids and commercial product formulations. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 44: 364-373.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Eugenol - From the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: a review of a remarkable and versatile molecule. Molecules 17: 6953-6981.


Shikanga, E., Kamatou, G.P.P., Chen, W., Combrinck, S., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Validated RP–UPLC and GC–MS methods for the analysis of psychoactive alkaloids in Sceletium tortuosum. South African Journal of Botany 82: 99-107.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Chen, W., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Quantification of rosmarinic acid in Salvia species indigenous to South Africa by HPTLC. Journal of Planar Chromatography 5: 403-408.


Beneke, C., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2012. In vitro drug absorption enhancement effects of Aloe vera and Aloe ferox. Scientiae Pharmaceutica 80: 475-486.


Shikanga, E., Vermaak., I., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. An HPTLC-densitometry method for the quantification of pharmacologically active alkaloids in Sceletium tortuosum raw material and products. Journal of Planar Chromatography 4:283-289.


Lebitsa, T., Viljoen, A.M., Lu, Z., Hamman, J.H. 2012. In vitro drug permeation enhancement potential of Aloe whole leaf and gel materials . Current Drug Delivery 9: 297-304.


de Rapper, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. and Dagne, E. 2012. The additive and synergistic antimicrobial effects of select frankincense and myrrh oils – a combination from the pharaonic pharmacopoeia. Letters in Applied Microbiology 54: 352-358.


Viljoen, A.M., Mncwangi, N., Vermaak, I. 2012. Anti-inflammatory iridoids of botanical origin. Current Medicinal Chemistry 19: 2104-2127.


Tarirai, C., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2012. Effects of dietary fruits, vegetables and a herbal tea on the in vitro transport of cimetidine: Comparing the Caco-2 model with porcine jejunum tissue. Pharmaceutical Biology 50: 254-263.


Ojewole, E., Mackraj, I., Akhundov, K., Hamman, J., Viljoen, A., Olivier, E., Wesley-Smith, J., Govender, T. 2012. Investigating the effect of Aloe vera gel on the buccal permeability of didanosine. Planta Medica 78: 354-361.


Shikanga, E.A., Hamman, J.H., Chen, W., Combrinck, S., Gericke, N., Viljoen, A.M., 2012. In vitro permeation of mesembrine-alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual and intestinal mucosa. Planta Medica 78: 260-268.


Chen, W., Van Wyk, B-E., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M. 2012. Cape aloes - a review of the phytochemistry, pharmacology and commercialisation of Aloe ferox . Phytochemistry Letters 5: 1–12.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Vermaak, I., Viljoen, A.M., 2011. An updated review of Adansonia digitata: a commercially important African tree. South African Journal of Botany 77: 908-919.


Harvey, A.L., Young, L.C., Viljoen, A.M., Gericke, N.P. 2011. Pharmacological actions of the South African medicinal and functional food plant Sceletium tortuosum and its principal alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137: 1124-1129.


Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Gavaghan, C., Baranska, M., Viljoen, A.M. 2011. A quality control method for geranium oil based on vibrational spectroscopy and chemometric data analysis. Vibrational Spectroscopy 57:242-247.


Vermaak, I., Kamatou, G.P.P., Komane-Mofokeng, B.M., Viljoen, A., Beckett, K. 2011. African seed oils of commercial importance – cosmetic applications. South African Journal of Botany 77: 920-933.


Jambwa, T., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2011. Matrix forming excipients from natural origin for controlled release matrix type tablets. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 5: 433-439.


Vermaak, I., Viljoen A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2011. Natural products in anti-obesity therapy. Natural Product Reports 28: 1493–1533.


Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2011. Chemotaxonomic evidence suggests that Eriocephalus tenuifolius is the source of Cape chamomile oil and not E. punctulatus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 39: 328-338.


Shikanga, E.A., Viljoen, A.M., Combrinck, S., Marston, A. 2011. Isolation of Sceletium alkaloids by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Phytochemistry Letters 4: 190–193.


Vermaak, I., Hamman, J.H., Chen, W., Viljoen A.M. 2011. In vitro transport of the steroidal glycoside P57 from Hoodia gordonii across excised porcine intestinal and buccal tissue. Phytotherapy Research 18: 783–787.


Lourens, A.C.U., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M., Davids, H., Van Heerden, F.R. 2011. Antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of selected South African Helichrysum species. South African Journal of Botany 77: 229-235.


Hulley, I.M., Viljoen A.M., Tilney, P.M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Wyk, B-E. 2011. Pteronia divaricata (Asteraceae): a newly recorded Cape herbal medicine South African Journal of Botany 77: 66-74.


Pather, N., Viljoen, A.M., Kramer, B. 2011. A biochemical comparison of the in vivo effects of Bulbine frutescens and Bulbine natalensis on cutaneous wound healing. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133: 364-370.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen A.M. 2011. Plant-based antimicrobial studies - methods and approaches to study the interaction between natural products. Planta Medica 77(11): 1168-1182.


Vermaak, I., Hamman, J.H., Viljoen A.M. 2011. Hoodia gordonii: An up-to-date review of a commercially important anti-obesity plant. Planta Medica 77(11): 1149-1160.


Komane, B.M., Olivier, E., Viljoen, A.M. 2011. Trichilia emetica (Meliaceae) – A review of traditional uses, biological activities and phytochemistry. Phytochemistry Letters 4: 1-9.


Maree, J.E., Viljoen, A.M. 2011. Fourier transform near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy can distinguish between the commercially important Pelargonium sidoides and its close taxonomic ally P. reniforme. Journal of Vibrational Spectroscopy 55: 146-152


Tarirai, C., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2010. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interactions Reviewed. Expert Opinion On Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 6(12): 1-24.


Hulley, I.M., Viljoen A.M., Tilney, P.M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Wyk, B-E. 2010. The ethnobotany, leaf anatomy, essential oil variation and biological activity of Pteronia incana (Asteraceae). South African Journal of Botany 76: 668-675.


Van Zyl, R.L., Seatholo, S.T., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. Pharmacological interactions of essential oil constituents on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum. South African Journal of Botany 76: 662-667.


Sandasi, M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Baranska, M., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. Application of vibrational spectroscopy in the quality assessment of Buchu oil obtained from two commercially important Agathosma species (Rutaceae). South African Journal of Botany 76: 692-700.


Suliman, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2010.Validating the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Artemisia afra in polyherbal combinations to treat respiratory infections. South African Journal of Botany 76: 655-661.


Lalli, J.Y.Y., Viljoen, A.M., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2010. Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species. Natural Product Communications 5: 1395-1400.


Vermaak, I., Viljoen A.M., Hamman, J.H., Baranska, M. 2010. The potential application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the quantification and mapping of the steroidal glycoside P57 in Hoodia gordonii. Phytochemistry Letters 3: 156–160.


Van Zyl, R.L., Seatholo, S., Van Vuuren, S.F, Viljoen, A.M. 2010. Pharmacological interactions of essential oil constituents on the viability of micro-organisms. Natural Product Communications 5: 1381-1386.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. Volatile composition and antimicrobial activity of twenty commercial frankincense essential oil samples. South African Journal of Botany 76: 686-691.


Sandasi, M., Leonard, C.M., van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2011. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) inhibits microbial biofilms in vitro. South African Journal of Botany 77: 80-85.


Chen, W., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. Geraniol - a review of a commercially important fragrance material. South African Journal of Botany 76: 643-651.


Lu, Z., Chen, W., Viljoen A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2010. Effect of sinomenine on intestinal epithelial transport of selected compounds. Phytotherapy Research 24; 211-218.


Meades, G., Henken, R.L., Waldrop, G.L., Rahman, M., Gilman, D., Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M., Gibbons, S. . 2010. Constituents of cinnamon inhibit bacterial acetyl CoA carboxylase. Planta Medica 76: 1570-1575.


Kamatou, G.P.P, Viljoen, A.M., Özek, T., Başer, K.H.C. 2010. Chemical composition of the wood and leaf oils from the “Clanwilliam Cedar” (Widdringtonia cedarbergensis J.A. Marsh): a critically endangered species. South African Journal of Botany 76: 652-654.


Vermaak, I., Hamman, J.H., Viljoen A.M. 2010. A rapid spectroscopic method for quantification of P57 in Hoodia gordonii raw material. Food Chemistry 120: 940-944.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. A review of the application and pharmacological properties of α-bisabolol and α-bisabolol-rich oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 87: 1-7.


Sandasi, M., Leonard, C.M., Viljoen, A.M. 2010. The in vitro anti-biofilm activity of selected culinary herbs and medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes. Letters in Applied Microbiology 50: 30–35.


Hulley, I.M., Viljoen A.M., Tilney, P.M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Wyk, B-E. 2010. Ethnobotany, leaf anatomy, essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Pteronia onobromoides (Asteraceae). South African Journal of Botany 76: 43-48.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M., Steenkamp, P. 2010. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and HPLC analysis of South African Salvia species. Food Chemistry 119: 684-688.


Viljoen, A.M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Coovadia, Z.H., Özek, T., Başer, K.H.C. 2010. Rare sesquiterpenes from South African Pteronia species. South African Journal of Botany 76: 146-152.


Vermaak, I., Hamman, J.H., Viljoen A.M. 2010. High performance thin layer chromatography as a method to authenticate Hoodia gordonii raw material and products. South African Journal of Botany 76: 119-124.


Beneke, C.E., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H. 2009. Polymeric plant-derived excipients in drug delivery. Molecules 14(7), 2602-2620.


Vermaak, I., Viljoen A.M., Hamman, J.H., Van Vuuren S.F. 2009. Effect of simulated gastrointestinal conditions and epithelial transport on extracts of green tea and sage. Phytochemistry Letters 2: 166-170.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2009. Interaction between the non-volatile and volatile fractions on the antimicrobial activity of Tarchonanthus camphoratus. South African Journal of Botany , 75, 505-509.


Vermaak I, Viljoen A.M., Hamman J.H., Van Vuuren S.F. 2009. The effect of simulated gastrointestinal conditions on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of indigenous South African plant extracts. South African Journal of Botany, 75, 594-599.


Van Vuuren S.F., Suliman S., Viljoen A.M. 2009. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Letters in Applied Microbiology 48: 440-446.


Chen, W., Lu, Z., Viljoen, A,M., Hamman, J.H. 2009. Intestinal drug transport enhancement by Aloe vera. Planta Medica 75: 1-9.


Braithwaite, M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Validation of smoke inhalation therapy to treat microbial infections. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119, 501–506.


Gericke, N., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Sceletium - a review update. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 653–663.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen , A.M., Özek, T.Başer. K.H.C. 2008. Head-space volatiles of Gethyllis afra and G. ciliaris fruits (“kukumakranka”). South African Journal of Botany, 74, 768–770.


Moolla, A., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. ‘Buchu’ - Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata (Rutaceae): A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 413–419.


Nyiligira, E., Viljoen, A.M., Van Heerden, F.R., Van Zyl, R.L., Van Vuuren, S.F., Steenkamp, P.A. 2008. Phytochemistry and in vitro pharmacological activities of South African Vitex (Verbenaceae) species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 680–685.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. In vitro evidence of phyto-synergy for plant part combinations of Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae) used in African traditional healing. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 700–704.


Paraskeva, M.P., Van Vuuren, S.F., Van Zyl, R.L., Davids, H., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. The in vitro biological activity of selected South African Commiphora species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 673–679.


Essop, A.B., Van Zyl, R.L., Van Vuuren, S.F., Mulholland, D., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. The in vitro pharmacological activities of 12 South African Hermannia species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 615–619.


Lourens, A.C.U., Viljoen, A.M., Van Heerden, F.R. 2008. South African Helichrysum species: A review of the traditional uses, biological activity and phytochemistry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 630–652.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Linalool - A review of a biologically active compound of commercial importance. Natural Product Communications 3: 1183–1192.


Erasto, P., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Limonene: Biosynthetic, Ecological and Pharmacological Relevance. Natural Product Communications 3: 1193–1202.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Zyl, R.L., Davids, H., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of essential oils on the biological activities of the solvent extracts from three Salvia species. Natural Product Communications 3: 1111–1115.


Sandasi, M., Leonard, C.M., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. The effect of five common essential oil components on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Food Control 19: 1070–1075.


Lalli, J.Y.Y., Van Zyl, R.L., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. In vitro biological activities of South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species. South African Journal of Botany 74: 153 –157.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Zyl, R.L., Davids, H., Van Heerden, F.R., Lourens, A.C.U., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Antimalarial and anticancer activities of selected South African Salvia species and isolated compounds from S. radula. South African Journal of Botany 74: 238–243.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Zyl, R.L., Figueredo, A.C, Barroso, J.G., Pedro, L.G., Van Vuuren, S.F. Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Seasonal variation in essential oil composition, oil toxicity and the biological activity of solvent extracts of three South African Salvia species. South African Journal of Botany 74: 230237.


Huang, M., Du Plessis, J., Du Preez, J., Hamman, J., A.M. Viljoen. 2008. Transport of aspalathin, a Rooibos tea flavonoid, across the skin and intestinal epithelium. Phytotherapy Research 22: 699–704.


Viljoen, A.M., Kamatou, G.P.P., Başer, K.H.C. 2008. Head-space volatiles of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra). South African Journal of Botany 74: 325–326.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Zyl, R.L., Davids, H., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2008. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of essential oils on the biological activities of the solvent extracts from three Salvia species. Natural Product Communications 3: 1111–1115.


Frum, Y., Viljoen, A.M., Van Heerden, F.R. 2007. Verbascoside and luteolin-5-O-d-glucoside isolated from Halleria lucida L. exhibit antagonistic anti-oxidant properties in vitro. South African Journal of Botany 73: 583–587.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Van Vuuren, S.F., Van Heerden, F.R., Seaman, T. Viljoen, A.M. 2007. Antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities of South African Salvia species and isolated compounds from S. chamelaeagnea. South African Journal of Botany 73: 552–557.


Moolla, A., Van Vuuren, S.F., Van Zyl, R.L., Viljoen, A.M. 2007. Biological activity and toxicity profile of 17 Agathosma (Rutaceae) species. South African Journal of Botany, 73: 588–592.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M., Özek, T., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C. 2007. Seasonal and geographical variation of Heteropyxis natalensis essential oil and the effect thereof on the antimicrobial activity. South African Journal of Botany 73: 441–448.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M., Figueiredo, A.C., Tilney, P.M., Van Zyl, R.L., Barroso, J.G., Pedro, L.G., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2007. Trichomes, essential oil composition and biological activities of Salvia albicaulis Benth. and S. dolomitica Codd, two species from the Cape region of South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 73: 102–108.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2007. Antimicrobial activity of limonene enantiomers and 1,8-cineole alone and in combination. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 22: 540–544.


Van Vuuren S.F., Viljoen, A.M., Van Zyl, R.L., Van Heerden, F.R., Başer K.H C. 2006. The antimicrobial, antimalarial and toxicity profiles of helihumulone, leaf essential oil and extracts of Helichrysum cymosum (L.) D.Don subsp. cymosum. South African Journal of Botany 72: 287–290.


Drewes, S.E., Mudau, K.E., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. Antimicrobial monomeric and dimeric diterpenes from the leaves of Helichrysum tenax var tenax. Phytochemistry 67: 716–722.


Viljoen, A.M., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C., Potgieter, C.J., Edwards, T.J. 2006. Microdistillation and essential oil chemistry – a useful tool for detecting hybridisation in Plectranthus (Lamiaceae). South African Journal of Botany 72: 99–104.


Njenga E.W. and Viljoen A.M. 2006. In vitro anti-inflammatory (5-LOX) and anti-oxidant activity of Eriocephalus L. (Asteraceae) species. South African Journal of Botany 72: 637–641.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen A.M., Van Vuuren S.F. and van Zyl, R.L. 2006. In vitro evidence of antimicrobial synergy between Salvia chamelaeagnea and Leonotis leonurus. South African Journal of Botany 72: 634–636.


Van Zyl, R.L., Seatholo, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. The biological activities of twenty nature identical essential oil constituents. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 129–133.


Frum, Y., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. In vitro 5-lipoxygenase activity of three indigenous South African aromatic plants used in traditional healing and the stereospecific activity of limonene in the 5-lipoxygenase assay. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 85–88.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Gwebu, L., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C. 2006. The geographical variation and antimicrobial activity of African Wormwood (Artemisia afra Jacq.) essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 19–25.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. A comparative investigation of the antimicrobial activity of South African aromatic plants compared to commercially available essential oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 66–71.


Viljoen, A.M., Moolla, A., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Van Vuuren, S.F., Van Zyl, R.L. 2006. The biological activity and essential oil composition of seventeen Agathosma (Rutaceae) species. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 2–16.


Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Khusal, P., Viljoen, A.M., Victor, J. 2006. Composition of the essential oils of five Coleonema species from South Africa. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 26–29.


Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Viljoen, A.M., Victor, J. 2006. Composition of the essential oils of three Acmadenia species from South Africa. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 54–56.


Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Viljoen, A.M., Victor, J. 2006. Composition of the essential oils of two Adenandra species from South Africa. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 46–47.


Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Viljoen, A.M., Victor, J.E. 2006. Composition of the essential oil of Diosma prama I. Williams. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 17–18.


Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. Composition of the essential oil of Euchaetis albertiniana I.J.M. Williams. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 122–123.


Frum, Y., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. In vitro 5-lipoxygenase and anti-oxidant activities of South African medicinal plants commonly used topically for skin diseases. Skin Physiology and Pharmacology 19: 329–335.


Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2006. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of African toothbrush sticks. South African Journal of Botany 72: 646–648.


Viljoen, A.M., Gono-Bwalya, A., Kamatou, G., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B. 2006. The essential oil composition and chemotaxonomy of Salvia stenophylla and its allies S. repens and S. runcinata. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 37–45.


Viljoen, A.M., Petkar, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Figueiredo, A.C., Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G. 2006. The chemo-geographical variation in essential oil composition and the antimicrobial properties of “wild mint” – Mentha longifolia subsp. polyadena (Lamiaceae) in southern Africa. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 60–65.


Lalli, J., Viljoen, A.M., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T. 2006. The essential oil composition and chemotaxonomical appraisal of South African Pelargoniums (Geraniaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 89–105.


Kamatou, G., van Zyl, R.L., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M., S.F., Figueiredo, A.C., Barroso, J.G., Pedro, L.G. 2006. Chemical composition, leaf trichome morphology and biological activities of the essential oils of four related Salvia species indigenous to southern Africa. Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 72–79.


Viljoen, A.M., Moolla, A., Van Vuuren, S.F., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Özek, T. 2006. A seasonal variation study of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Agathosma ovata (Thunb.) Pillans (Rutaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 30–36.


Viljoen, A.M., Njenga, E.W., Van Vuuren, S.F., Bicchi, C., Rubiolo, P., Sgorbini, B. 2006. Essential oil composition and in vitro biological activities of seven Namibian species of Eriocephalus L. (Asteraceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 124–128.


Kamatou, G., van Zyl, R.L., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M., S.F., Figueiredo, A.C., Barroso, J.G., Pedro, L.G. 2006. Biological activities and composition of Salvia muirii L. Bol. essential oil Journal of Essential Oil Research 18: 48–51.


Frum, Y., Viljoen, A.M., Drewes, S.E. 2005. In vitro 5-lipoxygenase and anti-oxidant activities of Warburgia salutaris and drimane sesquiterpenoids. South African Journal of Botany 71: 447–449.


Drewes, S.E., Khan, F., Van Vuuren, S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2005. Simple 1,4-benzoquinones with antibacterial activity from stems and leaves of Gunnera perpensa. Phytochemistry 66: 1812–1816.


Kamatou, G.P.P., Viljoen, A.M., Gono-Bwalya, A.B., Van Zyl, R.L., van Vuuren, S.F., Lourens, A., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B., Steenkamp, P. 2005. In vitro pharmacological activities and a chemical investigation of three South African Salvia species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102: 382–390.


Njenga, E.W., van Vuuren S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of Eriocephalus L. species. South African Journal of Botany 71: 81–87.


Viljoen, A.M., Subramoney, S., Van Vuuren, S.F., Başer, K.H.C., Demirci, B. 2005. The composition, geographical variation and antimicrobial activity of Lippia javanica (Verbenaceae) leaf essential oils. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96: 271–277.


Jäger, A.K., Mohoto, S.P., van Heerden, F.R., Viljoen, A.M. 2005. Activity of a traditional South African epilepsy remedy in the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor assay. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96: 603–606.


Njenga, E.W., van Vuuren S.F., Viljoen, A.M. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of Eriocephalus L. species. South African Journal of Botany 71: 81–87.


Lourens, A.C.U., Reddy, D., Başer, K.H.C., Viljoen, A.M., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2004. In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 95: 253–258.


Nyiligira, E., Viljoen, A.M., Başer, K.H.C., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2004. Essential oil composition and in vitro antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of South African Vitex species. South African Journal of Botany 70: 610–616.


Joulain, D., Casazza, A., Laurent, R., Portier, D., Pandya, R., Le, M., Viljoen, A. 2004. The flavor of fruits of South Africa. Part I: Mobola plum (Parinari curatellifolia). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2322–2325.


Sibanda, W., Pillay, V., Danckwerts, M.P., Viljoen, A.M., Van Vuuren, S.F., Riaz, A. 2004. Experimental Design for the fomulation and optimization of novel cross-linked oilispheres developed for in vitro site specific release of Mentha piperita oil. AAPS PharmSciTech 5: 1–14.


Lindsey, K.L., Viljoen A.M., Jäger, A.K. 2003. Screening of Aloe species for antioxidant activity. South African Journal of Botany 69: 599–602.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Vuuren, S., Ernst, E., Klepser, M.J., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C., Van Wyk, B.E. 2003. Osmitopsis asteriscoides (Asteraceae) - The antimicrobial activity and essential oil composition of a Cape-Dutch remedy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88: 137–143.


Karagianis, G., Viljoen, A.M., Waterman, P.G. 2003. Identification of major metabolites in Aloe littoralis by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Phytochemical Analysis 14: 275–280.


Van Heerden, F.R., Van Wyk, B-E., Viljoen, A.M., Steenkamp, P.A. 2003. Phenolic variation in wild populations of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31: 885–895.


Huffman, A., Klepser, M.E., Ernst, E.J., Keele, D., Roling, E., Viljoen, A.M. 2002. Susceptibility of opportunistic bacteria and yeasts to the volatile oils of Artemisia afra, Lippia javanica, Lippia scaberrima, Myrothamnus flabellifolius and Osmitopsis asteriscoides. 2002. The Journal of Infectious Disease Pharmacotherapy 5: 43–50.


Viljoen, A.M., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C., Van Wyk, B.-E. 2002. The essential oil composition of the roots and Rhizomes of Siphonochilus aethiopicus (wild ginger). South African Journal of Botany 68: 115–116.


Van Heerden, F.R., Viljoen, A.M., Mohoto, S. 2002. A phytochemical investigation of Craterocapsa tarsodes, a plant used for the treatment of epilepsy by the Northern Sotho people of South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 68: 77–79.


Viljoen, A.M, Klepser, M.J., Ernst, E., Keele, D., Roling, E., van Vuuren, S., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C., Van Wyk, B.E. 2002. The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the resurrection bush, Myrothamnus flabellifolius. South African Journal of Botany 68: 100–105.


Van Zyl, R.L., Viljoen, A.M. 2002. In vitro activity of Aloe extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. South African Journal of Botany 68: 106–110.


Lindsey, K.L., Jäger, A.K., Viljoen, A.M. 2002. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of Aloes. South African Journal of Botany 68: 47–50.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E., van Heerden, F.R. 2002. The chemotaxonomic value of the diglucoside anthrone homonataloside B in the genus Aloe. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 30: 35–43.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. 2001. A chemotaxonomic and morphological appraisal of Aloe series Purpurascentes, Aloe section Anguialoe and their hybrid, Aloe broomii. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 30: 1–11.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E., Newton, L.E. 2001. The occurrence and taxonomic distribution of the anthrones aloin, aloinoside and microdontin in Aloe. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 29: 53–67.


Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Van Wyk, B-E., Viljoen, A.M. 2000. Chromones and anthrones from Aloe marlothii and Aloe rupestris. Phytochemistry 55: 949–952.


Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Viljoen, A.M. & Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. The chemistry of Aloe species - A review. Current Organic Chemistry 4: 1055–1078.


Van Heerden, F.R., Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. The major flavonoid of Dodonaea angustifolia. Fitoterapia 71: 602–604.


Van Heerden, F.R., Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. 6’-O-Coumaroylaloesin from Aloe castanea – A taxonomic marker for Aloe section Anguialoe. Phytochemistry 55: 117–120.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. The chemotaxonomic value of the phenyl pyrone, aloenin in the genus Aloe. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 28: 1009–1017.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. 1999. The chemotaxonomic value of two cinnamoyl chromones aloeresins E and F in Aloe. Taxon 48: 747–754.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E., Newton, L.E. 1999. Plicataloside in Aloe - a chemotaxonomic appraisal. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 27: 507–517.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E., Van Heerden, F.R. 1998. The distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of flavonoids in the genus Aloe. Plant Systematics and Evolution 211: 31–42.


Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Van Wyk, B–E., Viljoen, A. 1998. 10-HydroxyaloinB 6'O-Acetate, an oxanthrone from Aloe claviflora. Journal of Natural Products 61: 256–257.


Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Van Wyk, B-E., Viljoen, A.M., Hellwig, V., Steglich, W. 1997. Anthrones from Aloe microstigma. Phytochemistry 44: 1271–1274.


Van Heerden, F.R., Van Wyk B-E., Viljoen, A.M. 1996. Aloeresins E & F, two chromones from Aloe peglerae. Phytochemistry 43: 867–869.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E. & Dagne, E. 1996. The chemotaxonomic value of 10-hydroxyaloin and its derivatives in Aloe series Asperifoliae Berger. Kew Bulletin 51: 159–168.


Smith, G.F., Van Wyk, B-E., Mössmer, M., Viljoen, A.M. 1995. The taxonomy of Aloinella, Guillauminia and Lemeea. (Aloaceae). Taxon 44: 513–517.


Viljoen, A.M., Van Wyk, B-E., Van der Bank, H., Smith, G.F., Van der Bank, M. 1996. A chemotaxonomic and biochemical evaluation of the identity of Aloe candelabrum. (Aloaceae). Taxon 45: 461–471.


Viljoen, A.M., Demarne, F.E., Van Der Walt, J.J.A.,Swart, J.P.J. 1995. A study of the variation in the essential oil and macromorphology of Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Herit. (Geraniaceae). Part 3. Geographical variation in essential oil composition and floral structure. South African Journal of Botany 61(3): 105–113.


Viljoen, A.M., Demarne, F.E., Van Der Walt, J.J.A., Swart, J.P.J. 1995. A study of the variation in the essential oil and morphology of Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Herit. (Geraniaceae). Part 2. The chemotypes of P. capitatum. Journal of Essential Oil Research 7: 605–611.


Demarne, F.E., Viljoen, A.M., Van Der Walt, J.J.A. 1993. A study of the variation in the essential oil and morphology of Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Herit. (Geraniaceae). Part 1. The composition of the oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 5: 493–499.





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