The essential oil of Salvia muirii L. Bol., a species indigenous to southern Africa was obtained by hydrodistillation (0.5%, v/f.w.) from the aerial parts and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-nine components representing 98% of the
oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (53%) and oxygen-containing monoterpenes (36%) with 1,8-cineole (23%), a-pinene (22%) and limonene (12%) being the major components. The oil exhibited
potent antimalarial (IC50: 6 mg/mL) and antibacterial activity especially against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus with MIC values of 6 and 9mg/mL, respectively. The oil exhibited poor anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide toxicity assay revealed that the essential oil of S. muirii should be used with caution as it displayed some degree of toxicity against the transformed human
kidney epithelial cells (IC50: 3 mg/mL).