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Kasote, D., Suleman, T., Chen, W., Sandasi, M., Viljoen, A., Van Vuuren, S.F. 2014. Chemical profiling and chemometric analysis of South African propolis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 55: 156–163.
UPLC-ESI-MS analysis of 39 South African propolis samples was undertaken to
report on the chemical composition and variability of South African propolis
and to compare the chemical profiles to Brazilian samples (n=3). Chemo-geographical patterns within South African propolis
were further analysed by chemometrics. South African propolis samples displayed
typical UPLC-ESI-MS fingerprints, which were different from their Brazilian
counterparts. UPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS/MS was used to identify marker compounds from
representative groups and 15 major phenolic acids and
flavonols from common South African propolis were identified. Chemometric
analysis of the UPLC-ESI-MS data revealed two distinct clusters among the South
African samples and also confirmed that the South African propolis was
chemically distinct from the Brazilian propolis. The majority of the samples
were phytochemically congruent with propolis from the temperate regions.