Rose-scented geranium, a commercially important cultivar originating from Pelargonium graveolens L’Her. ex Ait., is a high value essential oil extensively used in flavour and fragrance formulations. The oil is variable in composition with ‘Bourbon geranium’ (from Reunion Island) regarded as the highest quality geranium oil. Quality assessment of geranium oil involves profiling seven major volatile constituents (geraniol, citronellol, geranyl formate, citronellyl formate, linalool, isomenthone and guaia-6,9-diene) using gas chromatography (GC). The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of vibrational spectroscopy in tandem with chemometric methods as a rapid and low-cost alternative quality control method. Geranium oil samples (n = 70) were obtained from different suppliers representing cultivation sites in South Africa, Egypt, India, Reunion Island, China and Madagascar. Reference analysis was performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the oils were recorded with a total of 32 scans accumulated for each sample. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were developed. The calibration models obtained for both MIR and NIR data produced good correlation coefficients (R2>0.90) between the predicted and reference values for all seven marker molecules. Generally, the error parameters (RMSEE and RMSEP) after external validation were low (< 1.0 %) for all compounds guaranteeing reliable predictions. The results show convincingly the potential of both MIRS and NIRS as alternative methods that can be used in quality assessment of geranium oil providing sufficiently accurate results.